The Limits and Injustice of National Language

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Kallautang Column

 

The Limits and Injustice of National Language

 

By Aurelio Solver Agcaoili

 

It has become urgent to revisit the concept of national language in many nation-states that are multilingual and multicultural.

 

The drift in this urgency is quite simple and is as seductive as the very principle of ‘national language’ as a concept and as an ideal in the political acts of nation building and state crafting especially when such acts are beholden to the 19th century project of nation- state as seen in the experiences of Spain, France, Germany, and England.

 

In that project to define and put form to the Philippine nation-state in the early 20th century right after the United States’ occupation of the islands by virtue of the Treaty of Paris that allowed Spain to cede the Philippines to the United States at the cost of $20 million, then President Manuel Luis Quezon was enamored by the model of nation-state of these four European countries that imposed a policy of speaking a single language at the expense of the other languages of these nation-states.

 

In the formation of a nation-state, the political seduction is for all people of such a nation-state to be speaking the same language in the interest of ‘national communication’, as is always the usual reason, a rather lame excuse for linguistic injustice and cultural tyranny.

 

At best, it is an excuse that is based on an inability to plumb the vast possibilities of diversity in a nation-state. 

 

This desire for all peoples of a nation-state that is essentially multilingual and multicultural is an admission of the fear of Babel, a myth based on the fear of the unfamiliar. 

 

If one were to scratch at the surface of the reason for ‘nationalizing’ a language, we have here a variety of sub-texts that easily evolve into motives: (a) it is easier to control and administer the populace when they speak the same language; (b) thought patterns and the medium by which that thought pattern is expressed is easier to decipher and predict; and (c) social conditioning is easier to achieve.

 

These motives are sometimes not clear to the political administrators—and political operators—themselves because of the enchanting power of ‘oneness’, of ‘unity’, of talk and speech in the same language.

 

In the history of the development and imposition of national languages everywhere is replete with the ugly and painful narratives of language martyrdom in

Bangladesh, the separation of nation-states because of linguistic and cultural differences, the untold oppression of minority languages, and the systemic and systematic peripheralization of all other languages not given the stamp as ‘national’ but only ‘regional’ or worse, minor.

 

The problem with this notion of unity is the tyranny of oneness without variety, an idea of oneness that is static, a given, and never as a result of the dynamic intermingling of variety, difference, diversity and how these realities, existing right in the midst of the reality of nation building and state crafting are to be morally celebrated by the nation-state.

 

Of the many nation-states that have had to marginalize their other languages because one language has to be developed and whose words alone have to issue out of the mouths of their citizens, the Philippines is one in the list of the notorious nation-states, with its penchant for linguistic and cultural inequity it continues to socially, structurally, and institutionally perpetuate despite (a) its own declaration in its Bill of Rights that the basic rights of its people are to be protected and (b) its adherence to the provision for protection of language and cultural rights by the United Nations.

 

Let this be told: that the Philippines is a signatory to at least two international covenants protecting language and cultural rights as basic rights: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). 

 

The ICCPR stipulates, among others, this pertinent provision, in Art. 27: “In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their own religion, or to use their own language.”

 

The key concept in this provision is the prohibition of denying the right to enjoy one’s own culture. And there is nothing more fundamental as the mediating instrument of one’s culture as one’s own language.

 

In the ICESCR, some of the pertinent provisions restate in clear terms the fundamental rights of peoples to their culture, as in Art. 1.1 that holds that “All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.”

 

The key concept here is the pursuit in freedom by people of their “economic, social, and cultural development.” Article 2 articulates a requisite prohibition of discrimination on the basis, among others, of language and in Art. 3, the restatement of the fundamental right to education whereas Art. 15 speak of the right to cultural and artistic participation.

 

So much is being lost in the Philippines and in the communities of peoples of the Philippines in the diaspora when we do not recognize and celebrate this variety and diversity that is us as peoples of a homeland.

 

The Great Seal of the United States with that motto that sends a clear message across—e pluribus unum, the many uniting into one, or  “out of many, one”—is truly the only we way to go.

 

Language rights are fundamental human rights everywhere.

 

We deny these rights and we deny the humanity of the speaker of a language that is not ours.

 

We insist our language and culture as the language and culture of everyone and we perpetuate the social injustices of old, which, in the political life of the Philippines, is as old—and even older—than Manuel Luis Quezon who dreamed of making us all into Tagalog-speaking peoples. 

 

To translate linguistic justice and cultural democracy into action is to insist that we let go of the illusions of a national language and declare that diversity is the way to go and to recognize that the country’s major languages are all official languages.

 

This is the wise way to go.

 

E pluribus unum, indeed. 

Observer, March 2009

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Editorial-Observer April 2009

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Everyday Heroism, Heroic Lives

 

In the face of the economic downturn that has defined our everyday lives in the last quarter of last year and the first quarter of this year is the reality that our lives are texts that are difficult.

 

We live in the most trying circumstances we have witnessed so far with the exception of the depression.

 

With two wars this country is engaged in, with the loss of employment for millions of workers of this country, with the ripple effect of all these narratives of struggle that many of us go through each day, one thing is left with us: a touch of the heroic.

 

Survival is what defines us in many ways.

 

Survival is also the first of the ethical principles that guide us in coming to terms with the difficult definition of that which is good, however simple this is.

 

It is this sense of simplicity of that which is good that marks us.

 

Because good is simple, the challenge is for us to do well despite the trying and difficult circumstances of our contemporary lives.

 

Here is the irony of it all: how can we do well when there is not much goodness left for us to bank upon?

 

Here is the challenge: can we afford to remain good?

 

Can we afford to remain heroes and heroines in the everyday sense?

 

Is there a chance for us to respond to the call to everyday heroism when we ourselves can hardly get by?

 

How much more are we willing to give up in order for us to realize our neighbor’s need—or in order for us to see that our neighbor is in need, some fact that we have not realized before?

 

These last few months are occasions for questioning, reflection, and renewal.

 

As in the double-edged nature of crisis, here are moments of opportunity for us to test the sterner stuff in us, to test how many more miles can we keep on walking, how much more can we still give—or are we willing to give—until the hurting comes.

 

In crisis are predicaments, dilemmas, and problems.

 

In crisis are the creative abilities that we normally do not see we have—abilities that lead us into seeing that which is our usual way of seeing so that in that seeing are the new things, the new realities, the renewed sense of what capacities we have to address the issues that are of import to us—issues that are relevant for our everyday survival.

 

There will be missed opportunities.

 

And there will be people—motivated by selfishness and greed and wild abandon—who take advantage of the difficult circumstances of our lives.

 

But there will be people who will see to it that opportunities will be given to the least among us first—as it should be.

 

This is the ethical challenge: to see that we have enough of something so that others might have something of what we already have and which they do not.

 

This is the ethical challenge: to assure ourselves that everyday heroism still matters, and this everyday heroism entails our commitment to the good life not only for ourselves but for everyone else.

 

Fair is fair is what they call this.

 

And in articulating what this means, in making it certain that social justice is served, social justice must begin with something concrete: with a commitment to the cause of the least advantaged first and foremost, as a matter of moral choice—and as a matter of moral responsibility.

 

This commitment does not—can never and ought not to—start with zero.

 

Justice takes sides in the way everyday heroism takes sides even in these most difficult moments of our people’s lives.

 

The everyday heroes and heroines are around us.

 

The everyday heroes and heroines can be us.

 

If only we are willing to try.

 

 

ilokano writers, 17

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joke: ala, urnosenyo ti bagbagiyo ta adda met ti makuna a karma–adu ti nasolisitda para iti balay ti kalapati idiay suso.
18 Mar 09, 06:59

joke: ni nelson met, okey isuna ta ammona ti agdaniw. kas kunada isu ti dh lawrence ti ‘pinas.

18 Mar 09, 06:59

joke: straight guy ni viloria. di la makasao ta kayongna ni bigote a hari ti padala.

18 Mar 09, 06:58

joke: nalaing nga agpasakalye dagiti small time crooks. kusto ti kunkuna ti bagnet. diay ngay kinurakot da ben idi panawenna iti sur. isu nga aggurgurada ken viloria.

18 Mar 09, 00:17

mikki: wenno mara uma da metten iti kapapasalip, ta agga angat met da giti Bangles

18 Mar 09, 00:16

mikki: sbagay nia komat bibiangko, makibasbasaak laeng..dakesna awan met mabasa nga pangkilikiliti da koma, kas kadagiti napalabas nga tawen

18 Mar 09, 00:15

mikki: addab resulta ti CABIE! ta man, saan a kas dadduma a banglesenda nga umuna, sabagay no basi koma, nanannanam no baybayagen, da surprise na

17 Mar 09, 21:52

nilsun: wenno ti NAIMAS kenka ket agammol ti boto su nga kunam nga NAALAS ti agdilpat iti pipit?

17 Mar 09, 21:51

nilsun: dilpat ti pipit? gumilyano, saang nga NAGALAS, NAIMAS kunam a barok, hehehe

17 Mar 09, 21:35

malibnay: peterlajulian: Nagpa-Kalimugtongka ngem apay a simmiasika iti dalan, ket kas kuna ni Errol Abrew, napanka naguper iti lubnak dagiti baka ken nuang? APAY, Rey?

17 Mar 09, 21:14

GUMILYANO: Bagnet Ti Piddig sika ni Julio Belmes apay nga idadanes mo dagiti kakadwam iti TMI a da La Julian kada Macugay ken Bermudez?????

17 Mar 09, 21:12

GUMILYANO: Bagnet ti Piddig ilemmeng mo met a ti email mo ket madlaw nga sika ni Kulyo hehehetinapatr.komolboon@jtmjv.ae? UAE sa Dubai? Apay ni Angco nga kunam nga dilpatan na ti pipit ni alcantara? Nagalas!

17 Mar 09, 19:24

dillaw: cka ngay bagnet, no rugitmo koma met ti iparangarangmo. nalakam a makita rugit sabali, rugitmo dim makita

17 Mar 09, 19:17

diro: data la agdillaw ti ammoyo. no koma tumulongkayo a mangsolbar iti kurakot a parikut ti gf

17 Mar 09, 18:41

sulasu: bagnet, ni ngay guillermo concepcion?

17 Mar 09, 17:28

Bagnet ti Piddig: Huhuhu… awan a talaga ti pertekto a mannurat…nabileg ngamin ti impluensia ti pluma. Bumaknangka no usarem nga agpabaknang

17 Mar 09, 17:27

Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Abrew…manu ngata met ti it-ited ni Hepe wenno ni Mayor wenno ni Hues tunggal office visit na

17 Mar 09, 17:26

Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Peter, small time PR yan…kaparisna dayta ni Diaz…baryabarya lang a bayad ti lecture ken pakunsuelo dagiti pulitiko ken business man

17 Mar 09, 17:25

Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Belmes, mahilig dayta ti tsiks.

17 Mar 09, 17:22

Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Macugay…medyo bigftime. Koriente ti kukuana.

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joke: ala, urnosenyo ti bagbagiyo ta adda met ti makuna a karma–adu ti nasolisitda para iti balay ti kalapati idiay suso. 18 Mar 09, 06:59 joke: ni nelson met, okey isuna ta ammona ti agdaniw. kas kunada isu ti dh lawrence ti ‘pinas. 18 Mar 09, 06:59 joke: straight guy ni viloria. di la makasao ta kayongna ni bigote a hari ti padala. 18 Mar 09, 06:58 joke: nalaing nga agpasakalye dagiti small time crooks. kusto ti kunkuna ti bagnet. diay ngay kinurakot da ben idi panawenna iti sur. isu nga aggurgurada ken viloria. 18 Mar 09, 00:17 mikki: wenno mara uma da metten iti kapapasalip, ta agga angat met da giti Bangles 18 Mar 09, 00:16 mikki: sbagay nia komat bibiangko, makibasbasaak laeng..dakesna awan met mabasa nga pangkilikiliti da koma, kas kadagiti napalabas nga tawen 18 Mar 09, 00:15 mikki: addab resulta ti CABIE! ta man, saan a kas dadduma a banglesenda nga umuna, sabagay no basi koma, nanannanam no baybayagen, da surprise na 17 Mar 09, 21:52 nilsun: wenno ti NAIMAS kenka ket agammol ti boto su nga kunam nga NAALAS ti agdilpat iti pipit? 17 Mar 09, 21:51 nilsun: dilpat ti pipit? gumilyano, saang nga NAGALAS, NAIMAS kunam a barok, hehehe 17 Mar 09, 21:35 malibnay: peterlajulian: Nagpa-Kalimugtongka ngem apay a simmiasika iti dalan, ket kas kuna ni Errol Abrew, napanka naguper iti lubnak dagiti baka ken nuang? APAY, Rey? 17 Mar 09, 21:14 GUMILYANO: Bagnet Ti Piddig sika ni Julio Belmes apay nga idadanes mo dagiti kakadwam iti TMI a da La Julian kada Macugay ken Bermudez????? 17 Mar 09, 21:12 GUMILYANO: Bagnet ti Piddig ilemmeng mo met a ti email mo ket madlaw nga sika ni Kulyo hehehe tinapatr.komolboon@jtmjv.ae? UAE sa Dubai? Apay ni Angco nga kunam nga dilpatan na ti pipit ni alcantara? Nagalas! 17 Mar 09, 19:24 dillaw: cka ngay bagnet, no rugitmo koma met ti iparangarangmo. nalakam a makita rugit sabali, rugitmo dim makita 17 Mar 09, 19:17 diro: data la agdillaw ti ammoyo. no koma tumulongkayo a mangsolbar iti kurakot a parikut ti gf 17 Mar 09, 18:41 sulasu: bagnet, ni ngay guillermo concepcion? 17 Mar 09, 17:28 Bagnet ti Piddig: Huhuhu… awan a talaga ti pertekto a mannurat…nabileg ngamin ti impluensia ti pluma. Bumaknangka no usarem nga agpabaknang 17 Mar 09, 17:27 Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Abrew…manu ngata met ti it-ited ni Hepe wenno ni Mayor wenno ni Hues tunggal office visit na 17 Mar 09, 17:26 Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Peter, small time PR yan…kaparisna dayta ni Diaz…baryabarya lang a bayad ti lecture ken pakunsuelo dagiti pulitiko ken business man 17 Mar 09, 17:25 Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Belmes, mahilig dayta ti tsiks. 17 Mar 09, 17:22 Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Macugay…medyo bigftime. Koriente ti kukuana.

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joke: ala, urnosenyo ti bagbagiyo ta adda met ti makuna a karma–adu ti nasolisitda para iti balay ti kalapati idiay suso. 18 Mar 09, 06:59 joke: ni nelson met, okey isuna ta ammona ti agdaniw. kas kunada isu ti dh lawrence ti ‘pinas. 18 Mar 09, 06:59 joke: straight guy ni viloria. di la makasao ta kayongna ni bigote a hari ti padala. 18 Mar 09, 06:58 joke: nalaing nga agpasakalye dagiti small time crooks. kusto ti kunkuna ti bagnet. diay ngay kinurakot da ben idi panawenna iti sur. isu nga aggurgurada ken viloria. 18 Mar 09, 00:17 mikki: wenno mara uma da metten iti kapapasalip, ta agga angat met da giti Bangles 18 Mar 09, 00:16 mikki: sbagay nia komat bibiangko, makibasbasaak laeng..dakesna awan met mabasa nga pangkilikiliti da koma, kas kadagiti napalabas nga tawen 18 Mar 09, 00:15 mikki: addab resulta ti CABIE! ta man, saan a kas dadduma a banglesenda nga umuna, sabagay no basi koma, nanannanam no baybayagen, da surprise na 17 Mar 09, 21:52 nilsun: wenno ti NAIMAS kenka ket agammol ti boto su nga kunam nga NAALAS ti agdilpat iti pipit? 17 Mar 09, 21:51 nilsun: dilpat ti pipit? gumilyano, saang nga NAGALAS, NAIMAS kunam a barok, hehehe 17 Mar 09, 21:35 malibnay: peterlajulian: Nagpa-Kalimugtongka ngem apay a simmiasika iti dalan, ket kas kuna ni Errol Abrew, napanka naguper iti lubnak dagiti baka ken nuang? APAY, Rey? 17 Mar 09, 21:14 GUMILYANO: Bagnet Ti Piddig sika ni Julio Belmes apay nga idadanes mo dagiti kakadwam iti TMI a da La Julian kada Macugay ken Bermudez????? 17 Mar 09, 21:12 GUMILYANO: Bagnet ti Piddig ilemmeng mo met a ti email mo ket madlaw nga sika ni Kulyo hehehe tinapatr.komolboon@jtmjv.ae? UAE sa Dubai? Apay ni Angco nga kunam nga dilpatan na ti pipit ni alcantara? Nagalas! 17 Mar 09, 19:24 dillaw: cka ngay bagnet, no rugitmo koma met ti iparangarangmo. nalakam a makita rugit sabali, rugitmo dim makita 17 Mar 09, 19:17 diro: data la agdillaw ti ammoyo. no koma tumulongkayo a mangsolbar iti kurakot a parikut ti gf 17 Mar 09, 18:41 sulasu: bagnet, ni ngay guillermo concepcion? 17 Mar 09, 17:28 Bagnet ti Piddig: Huhuhu… awan a talaga ti pertekto a mannurat…nabileg ngamin ti impluensia ti pluma. Bumaknangka no usarem nga agpabaknang 17 Mar 09, 17:27 Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Abrew…manu ngata met ti it-ited ni Hepe wenno ni Mayor wenno ni Hues tunggal office visit na 17 Mar 09, 17:26 Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Peter, small time PR yan…kaparisna dayta ni Diaz…baryabarya lang a bayad ti lecture ken pakunsuelo dagiti pulitiko ken business man 17 Mar 09, 17:25 Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Belmes, mahilig dayta ti tsiks. 17 Mar 09, 17:22 Bagnet ti Piddig: Ni Macugay…medyo bigftime. Koriente ti kukuana.

Ilokano writers, 17

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Diony, agawitkayo iti karbin, wenno machine gun, ta ratratenyon dagiti mannanakaw a talipandas, Awanen, nagkawindangwindangen dagiti tao ni Tang Bulong
17 Mar 09, 12:29

sumagpawak man: dua a ganid iti kuwarta! sus ama!

17 Mar 09, 12:27

sumagpawak man: adda met ammomi a dakdakkel pay a damag. A da Bulong ken Molina addan nakapatangda a politiko a nagkari nga isunto ti mangbangon iti balay ti gumil idiay suso. Ket ti masolisitsda, ibulsanto dagitoy

17 Mar 09, 12:24

sulasu: ar-aramatenda met lang dagiti membros ken mamannurat ken GF nga pagsolisit para ti bagbagida lang. awan koman ti as-aso-sasion ket bahala lattan ti tunggal writer a manpadur-as lit. iluko, pwaaa!

17 Mar 09, 12:22

sulasu: agboto, hahaha! sabali itan ti gumil, sinnikapanen! Isardengda koma ketdin dayta komkombension ta su pay nga paggastuan dagiti mannurat ken mannurots

17 Mar 09, 12:19

sulasu: da met ngata lugan no rabii ti biernes santos ngem nia la nga ayatkon a bumyahe ket adda swimming/piknikmi iti sabado aroyo? baka singkuenta lang ti makapan ket no kasta, battit lan ti bayadan nga

17 Mar 09, 12:16

sulasu: idi binalak ni diony ti agpresidente, impa-cagayanda ti kombension. ita, novaliches a teritoriona. pustaan, taga GMM ti 95% a makadar-ay lang dita. uray kayatmo ti mapan a taga probinsia, kasano a

17 Mar 09, 11:52

isu met lang: Mtero Manila lang ti adu nga makapan ta narigat ti agbiyahe iti Juebes Santo wenno Viernes Santo! Political strategy da Bulong ken Baldo Valdez tapno mangabak manen ni Bulong! Damn you all!

17 Mar 09, 11:52

isu met lang: Mtero Manila lang ti adu nga makapan ta narigat ti agbiyahe iti Juebes Santo wenno Viernes Santo! Political strategy da Bulong ken Baldo Valdez tapno mangabak manen ni Bulong! Damn you all!

17 Mar 09, 11:50

isu met lang: nga inyeskedyul da iti alangain nga dates ti gf convention tapno taga metro manila lang ti adu nga mapan ta no botosan da manen ni Bulong! narigat bihae juebes viernes santo!

17 Mar 09, 11:20

ammok pay: naurnongda a nadsoli****…****!

17 Mar 09, 11:19

ammok pay: adda pay agas-asuk a damag! 2009 GF Election – lutong Bulong. agsubli kano iti kinapresidenti! Adu kanon ti naurnongda ken ni Molina! Nga igatangdanto iti saggaysada a van?! ay.. yay.. yay..

17 Mar 09, 11:12

ammok: agdamagka iti ilocos norte ken ilocos sur, aglalo dagiti barangay kapitan, mayores ken dadduma pay a politiko a biniktimada, ibagada dayta sika!

17 Mar 09, 11:11

ammok: ti mannngaso a taga PIA nga ibadbaga ni assassin. tao dayta ni bulong a maysa met a mangngibrong. nakaro! isu dayta ni Ben Pacris.

17 Mar 09, 06:09

Pet: ta nasebseban siguro ti anepda iti APA—APA ta kasta ti gura…agramaram a kasla apuy

17 Mar 09, 06:08

Pet: madlaw latta a naksayan ti anep bagiti mannurat a makisalip/RFAAFIL/RAFFAELLA 18 laeng ti simmalip..dati. naumurok latta a biente..

16 Mar 09, 19:32

roda: asino a taga-pia? barbaro dayta a.

16 Mar 09, 15:40

Assasin: Ket kas mannurat, madalusanen ti puli no iramutam ni bragado, duque, cabie, bulong, molina ngem adda pay nakarkaro, daytay taga Laoag nga a taga-PIA…pati aso ti mannalon ket hanna pakawanen jejejej

16 Mar 09, 15:07

Assasin: no mannalonka, umuna a pukawem dagiti balang a ruot tapno nalabon ti maapitmo. No adda piskariam ti pilapia, umuna a tiliwem dagiti dalag ken bontiek nga agsida kadagiti fingerlings.

16 Mar 09, 15:04

Assasin: Simple laeng ti solusion amin a parikot iti panagtakaw ken panagkunniber. Inton GF convention, mangitugotkayo ti time bomb ket imulayo iti lugar a pagdianan da duque,bragado, bulong, cabie ken Teddy

Ilokano writers, 16

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17 Mar 09, 06:09

Pet: ta nasebseban siguro ti anepda iti APA—APA ta kasta ti gura…agramaram a kasla apuy

17 Mar 09, 06:08

Pet: madlaw latta a naksayan ti anep bagiti mannurat a makisalip/RFAAFIL/RAFFAELLA 18 laeng ti simmalip..dati. naumurok latta a biente..

16 Mar 09, 19:32

roda: asino a taga-pia? barbaro dayta a.

16 Mar 09, 15:40

Assasin: Ket kas mannurat, madalusanen ti puli no iramutam ni bragado, duque, cabie, bulong, molina ngem adda pay nakarkaro, daytay taga Laoag nga a taga-PIA…pati aso ti mannalon ket hanna pakawanen jejejej

16 Mar 09, 15:07

Assasin: no mannalonka, umuna a pukawem dagiti balang a ruot tapno nalabon ti maapitmo. No adda piskariam ti pilapia, umuna a tiliwem dagiti dalag ken bontiek nga agsida kadagiti fingerlings.

16 Mar 09, 15:04

Assasin: Simple laeng ti solusion amin a parikot iti panagtakaw ken panagkunniber. Inton GF convention, mangitugotkayo ti time bomb ket imulayo iti lugar a pagdianan da duque,bragado, bulong, cabie ken Teddy

16 Mar 09, 08:52

garatigit: ala agaapakayo latta TMI ken GUMIL kasta ti nalalaling a mamannurat nga imbag la a apgtuladanto dagiti sumarsaruno nga ub-ubbing. agpipinnangas kayo latta.

16 Mar 09, 08:45

garatigit: iti friendster accountna. mabalin a bakla ta kitaenyo ket ap-apera. kasla kayatna ti makipinnungot ken makikinnaramut hikhikhik

16 Mar 09, 08:43

garatigit: ken lalaokanyo met iti pinnangas gamin. kasla kadayta errol nangabak la namindua iti panagsurat ket ti ammona isun ti kalaingan. mannakiapa a kas maysa a bakla. wenno bakla a talaga ngata a kas makita

16 Mar 09, 08:33

garatigit: nadadaelen san ta GUMIL yo a mamannurat lalaukanyo met gamin iti panagayat iti adu a kuarta

16 Mar 09, 08:24

garatigit: kusto dagta kuna ni duque 2. ngem dapat kuma nga adda ebidinsiya tapno mapatunayan dagita alegasion ni julio.

15 Mar 09, 21:32

duque 2: a laisenyo. maawatak a kayatna ti transparency.

15 Mar 09, 21:13

duque 2: adun ti naaramid ni belmes to expose the hypocricy of cabie, duque, bragado, bulong. dayawentayo koma isuna imbes

15 Mar 09, 21:10

duque 2: agbaintayo koma a mapan idiay Suso a dita agpalawag kadakuada, wenno agpadispensar ta ne, kalpasan ti dandani 40 a tawen, pulos nga awan man laeng liwliwada a nangsangsangaili kadatayo iti adu a tawen

15 Mar 09, 21:07

duque 2: agassawa a Reyes ta, ne, indonarda ti lote, ngem ayanna diay balay?

15 Mar 09, 21:07

duque 2: ti singasingko, bay-andan dagiti lektiurer ti umay a gf cmbension. agpalawag koma da honor blanco, bragado, duque, nisperos tapno malawlawagankami no ania ti pudno. ammomi nga adda met masao dagiti

15 Mar 09, 21:05

duque 2: ngem dagiti bida–duque, eden bulong, diony bulong, jose bragado- agsaoda koma met apo tapno malawlawagan dagiti mannurat.

15 Mar 09, 21:04

duque 2: no nagsaon ni arsing nga adda indonarna a dolikar, patiek dayta. ngem no mano ti nabagi ni nisperos, di ammo.

15 Mar 09, 21:03

duque 2: diay nasurok a 1,000 dollars nga inted ni dr. alupay, mano ti naited kenka, nisperos? saan kadi nga innala ni diony bulong? nakalawlawag iti GF financial report a pinirmaam, saan kadi?

15 Mar 09, 21:01

duque 2: naiturn0ver kadi ken ni nisperos ti libreto ti gf? wenno da la duque ken eden bulong ti nangig-iggem? ibaga koma ni nisperos ti pudno a napasamak.